I have been fascinated by the knowledge representation and reasoning field. My presentation on commonsense knowledge graphs instilled a greater desire for knowledge bases in the form of ontologies and knowledge graph. It became clear to me that it would be difficult to create a deeper knowledge base that embodies commonsense knowledge A knowledge base that will extend the meaning of entities by capturing analogical reasoning elements such as metaphors will have to be domain specific.
The Hasso Plattner Institut has a great lecture on Knowledge and Engineering with Semantic Web Technologies by Dr Harald Sack on YouTube is a great resource that has inspired me to look at domain-specific knowledge base. There are four types and categories of ontologies. These are viewed according to their level of generality and they are the top-level ontology, domain ontology, task ontology and application ontology.
A commonsense or distilled knowledge base for the experiences and events will be viewed as a domain ontology with a bit of task ontology. This is because some experiences can be an attraction within the tourism and travel domain (e.g Buckingham Palace) and also tasks like Buckingham Palace tours, Buckingham Palace visit, Buckingham Palace changing of the guards. These Buckingham Palace related terms can be linked to top-level ontology terms such as historic sites or royal palaces.
For a deeper knowledge base that will include commonsense and social-cultural knowledge, it is important to focus on a domain and possibly build from a top-level ontology than spread the knowledge base too wide and produce shallow relational structures.
One of the most popular commonsense knowledge bases out there is known as ConceptNet. A quick search for the Buckingham Palace entity produces very limited interconnected entities or triples. The results provided could be viewed to be top-level or foundational ontology in nature. Based on ConceptNet, Buckingham Palace have related terms such as British, Royal family and Residence. From a part-whole relationship perspective, it is viewed to be a part of Westminster by ConceptNet.
A further look into other triples or interrelated entities presented by ConceptNet, its location is in the city of Westminster, England, Greater London and the United Kingdom. Rearranging these places presents a taxonomy of the United Kingdom as a Superclass to the City of Westminster as the subclass or lowest class. Finally, Buckingham Palace is then identified as a type of historic place. The entity historic place could be conceived as a top-level ontology.
The cross-domain nature of ConceptNet, means the relational structure or triples of some concepts are not as deep as others. A popular entity like Buckingham Palace has very limited commonsense linked data
This increases the need for domain-specific knowledge bases that can contain some degree of commonsense knowledge. As the online databases and websites such as Wikipedia contain mostly taxonomic and factual data. The complexity of English language, evolving contextual understanding, human beliefs and social values lends credence to a knowledge base that can embody as much of real-world meaning. The increasing influence of narratives such as books, movies and TV shows have led to a constant creation of deeper understanding and meaning to concepts. Previous works have utilised scripts from movies to derive a human activity knowledge base comprising of over 250,000 activities. Books, narrative journalism, TV and movie scripts can enrich a knowledge base on experiences and events. Narratives convey deeper relationships of a concept by going beyond the obvious factual information to establish contextual and social-cultural insights. There is no shortage of research highlighting the relationship between narrative intelligence to commonsense reasoning or the key role of narratives in commonsense reasoning.
In developing a commonsense knowledge base, relevant long-piece journalistic articles, novels, TV and movie scripts could help add more level of knowledge. A deeper level of knowledge, in this case, goes beyond static concept hierarchies that are mere taxonomic. Knowledge hierarchies such as subtype of, member of or shape, size and colour could have generic information that could lack some contextual substance.
In the case of Buckingham Palace as an entity, Wikipedia entries alone will not provide all the triples needed for the Buckingham palace concept. Other narrative sources such as books like The Crown: The official book of the Netflix hit series, scripts from the most popular Buckingham Palace related movies, will provide deeper relational structures or add some degree of social culturally shared beliefs about how the world works. As humans are believed to better understand the world from narratives. This has necessitated the creation of a knowledge base for experience and event entities with an initial focus on London and spread through other major tourist cities. With an end goal of helping brands and computer applications better understand the deep knowledge humans have of these domain concepts and help improve conversational interfaces, content and advertising strategies.