In graph theory, a bridge is an edge whose removal leads to the disconnection of the network. It is usually found in undirected graphs and can also be viewed within the context of disconnected undirected graphs. In these disconnected undirected graphs, removing a bridge leads to a further separation of the subgraphs. Let’s explore some examples below.

**Bridge in an undirected connected graph:**

The below graph is undirected but it is connected. There are 9 nodes and 10 edges in this graph. You can determine that one edge is in red and the rest are in grey/black. The edge in red is the bridge and removal will lead to a disconnection of node [L] from the rest of the graph. Assuming all of these nodes were train stations and the edges are London tube lines. A rail track maintenance work, shortage of control room staff or a broken train on the track are some of the reasons that can cause a train line that connects node [H] to node[L] to become disconnected or temporarily removed from the train network or graph. When this occurs, people living close to the station [L] will become stranded or short of transportation options. This is a connected graph because the disconnected unit is not a sub-graph on its own but a single node stranded and possibly struggling in the network.

Continue reading